|Empire of Ruthenia|
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The Senate of Ruthenia is the upper legislative house of Ruthenian Empire consisted in 36 seats and their give assist to the imperial government in several legislative issues and advice for certain legislative matters, the chairman of the Senate is the "eye of the sovereign" called proboulos.
The members of the senate are appointed for life by the Basileus on the advice of the Prime Minister. Its wide variety of functions were carried out by the different departments into which it was divided. an audit office; one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. It also had supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the Empire. It was chaired by the Proboulos. He served as the link between the sovereign and the Senate and acted, in the Basileus own words, as "the sovereign's eye", the proboulos is in charge of the armony between the two houses and the correct representation of both legislative houses.
The Senate have a legislative authority as an honorary council with titular members. Most of the bills passed by the Lower House required the consent of the The Senate, except for the government budget and military recruitment. The Membership was attained by inheritance or can be sold it, by appointment or by an ecclesiastical role in the Church.
The upper house comprised:
- Notable Aristocratic Members of the Empire, (see the list for more details)
- Representatives of Ecumenical Patriarchate of Auronopolis and the Archdiocese of Thracia
- Ruthene nobles appointed as hereditary peers by the Basileus
- Ruthene citizens appointed as life peers.
To be a member of the senate, you must be elected by the Basileus as "honourable member of the Gerousia" and resign of their political party (if the candidate is member of one) and make a oath of fidelity and "search the common good for the empire", after that the basileus granted the title of "Zevgos" to the new member.
The Senate and the Chamber of Deputies assemble in the Vesiris Palati.
The Senate Chamber is the site of many formal ceremonies, the most famous of which is the State Opening of Parliament, held at the beginning of each new parliamentary session. During the State Opening, the Sovereign, seated on the Throne in the Chamber and in the presence of both Houses of Parliament, delivers a speech outlining the Government's agenda for the upcoming parliamentary session.
In the Senate, members need not seek the recognition of the presiding officer before speaking, as is done in the Chamber of Deputies. If two or more Zevgos simultaneously rise to speak, the Chamber decides which one is to be heard by acclamation, or, if necessary, by voting on a motion. Often, however, the proboulos will suggest an order, which is thereafter generally followed. Speeches in the Senate are addressed to the House as a whole ("My Zevgos") rather than to the presiding officer alone (as is the custom in the Lower House). Members may not refer to each other in the second person (as "you"), but rather use third person forms such as "the noble Duke", "the noble Count", "the noble Lord", "my noble friend", "The most Reverend Primate" etc.
Each member may make no more than one speech on a motion, except that the mover of the motion may make one speech at the beginning of the debate and another at the end. Speeches are not subject to any time limits in the House; however, the House may put an end to a speech by approving a motion "that the noble Lord be no longer heard". It is also possible for the House to end the debate entirely, by approving a motion "that the Question be now put". This procedure is known as Closure, and is extremely rare.
Once all speeches on a motion have concluded, or Closure invoked, the motion may be put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote; the Proboulos or Deputy Speaker puts the question, and the Senate respond either "Content" (in favour of the motion) or "Not Content" (against the motion). The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his assessment is challenged by any Zevgos, a recorded vote known as a division follows.
Members of the House enter one of two lobbies (the "Content" lobby or the "Not-Content" lobby) on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. At each lobby are two Tellers (themselves members of the House) who count the votes of the Lords. The Lord Speaker may not take part in the vote. Once the division concludes, the Tellers provide the results thereof to the presiding officer, who then announces them to the House.
If there is an equality of votes, the motion is decided according to the following principles: legislation may proceed in its present form, unless there is a majority in favour of amending or rejecting it; any other motions are rejected, unless there is a majority in favour of approving it. The quorum of the Senate is just three members for a general or procedural vote, and 30 members for a vote on legislation. If fewer than three or 30 members (as appropriate) are present, the division is invalid.
Despite the tremendous pride and dignity it means to belong to the Senate, only members avesados or more known by the imperial integrity belong to him, being one of the "elite" institutions of the imperial government, besides being known to be only one institution with nominative character, because his powers are not enough to be more than mere nominal and tips for the imperial government can intervene and advise on certain administrative, executive and legislative ensure the proper development materials, but their power is limited by the consent of the Basileus.
has a supervisory power over the imperial decisions and character of advice is used many times thanks to the Proboulos, in various legislative matters, despite his nominal imperial level, at the legislative level weight decisions Senate are essential to the approval of local laws consensus Senate and final approval is necessary for the emperor, with recommendations of the Senate, the law has ultimate validity.
The Senate retained broad responsibility for adopting laws on foreign policy, but the constitution stipulated no specific foreign policy duties for the legislative branch. The constitution gave the Senate, the responsibility for deciding on the use of troops abroad and reviewing the imperial government ratification and denunciation of international treaties and Senate decisions on war and peace.
Committees form a key component to the structure of the Senate. Sixteen committees and seven commissions exist for senators to consider legislation and policy on a number of issues ranging from foreign affairs, imperial affairs, and youth and sports. Leadership in these committees are determined by the Proboulos, who remains in correspondence with their findings. These committees include:
- Committee on Imperial Legislation
- Committee on Judicial and Legal Affairs
- Committee on Defence and Security
- Budgetary Committee
- Committee on Financial Markets and Currency Circulation
- Foreign Affairs Committee
- Committee on the Principate States.
- Committee on Federal Affairs and Regional Policies
- Committee on Local Government
- Social Policy Committee
- Committee on Economic Policy, Business and Ownership
- Industrial Policy Committee
- Committee on Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
- Committee on Food and Agricultural Policies
- Committee for Science, Culture, Education, Public Health and Ecology
- Committee on Northern Territories and Indigenous Minorities
- Commission on Standing Orders and Parliamentary Performance Organisation
- Commission for the Council of Federation's Performance Maintenance Monitoring
- Commission on Youth and Sports
- Commission on Information Policy
- Commission on Natural Monopolies