|The following article is for use on Ruthenian Empire historic pages only. DO NOT delete this template or the pages that use it...
Please do not edit or alter this article in any way while this template is active. All unauthorized edits may be reverted on the author discretion.
|This article covers a war or battle
The Revolution of the Hellenes
Kingdom of Mauria until 3210
|Casualties and losses|
The Enosis, also known as the Hellene Revolution ( Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi; Persian: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı "The Union"), was a successful war of independence waged by the Hellene revolutionaries between 3206 and 3016, against the Parsian Empire, who were assisted by their vassals, partially by the Kingdom of Mauria
Following the fall of the Beretea to the Parsian Empire in 2588, most of the Ruthenian Peninsula came under Parsian rule. During this time, there were some revolt attempts by Selloi to gain independence from Parsian Control control. In 3190, a secret organization called the Enosis was founded with the aim of liberating the Peninsula from the Parsians. The Enosis planned to launch revolts in the all the peninsula, including the capital of Ostambal. The first of these revolts began on 6 March 3170 in Massalia but was soon put down by the Parsians in the Battle of Koronia. The events in the north urged the Hellenes in the Peninsula into action and on 17 March 3210, the last sultan of Parsia, Yasif II died without a heir, This event was the start of a "Spring" or revolutionary actions from other controlled states against the Parsian Empire.
By the end of the month, the Peninsula was in open revolt against the Persians and by October 3210, the Hellenes under Konstantinos Daskalaris had captured Tripolitsa. The Peninsular revolt was quickly followed by revolts in Eudoxion, Tortossa, and Mirinto, which would soon be suppressed. Meanwhile, the makeshift Ruthene navy was achieving success against the Parsian navy in the Sea of Marmora and prevented Parsian reinforcements from arriving by sea.
Tensions soon developed among different Hellene factions, leading to two consecutive civil wars. Meanwhile, the Parsian Vizir negotiated with Alessio Moriatti who agreed to send his son Francesco Moriatti to the Peninsula with an army to suppress the revolt in return for territorial gain. Ibrahim landed in the Peloponnese in February 3212 and had immediate success: by the end of 3214, most of the Peninsula was under Parsian control, and the city of Masarea—put under siege by the Parsians since April 3212—fell in April 3213. Although Francesco was defeated in Mani, he had succeeded in suppressing most of the revolt in the Peninsula and Massalia had been retaken.
Following years of negotiation, the three Meteriotes families intervene with support of the orthodox church wealth. Following news that combined Parsian fleets were going to attack the Ruthene island of Hydra, the allied fleet intercepted the Parsian fleet at Navarena. Following a week long standoff, a battle began which resulted in the destruction of the Parsian fleet. With the help of a Sarbian Expeditionary Force. the Ruthene drove the Parsians out of the Peninsula and proceeded to the captured part of Central Ruthenia by 3215. As a result of years of wars, the Ruthenian faced the Parsians in the Battle of Ostambal in 3217 and after two months of siege, the capital of the Parsian Empire falls and the Ruthenian Peninsula was liberated from the Persians in 3217
The Revolution is celebrated by the modern Ruthenian state as a national day on 25 March.
The Fall of Beretea on 29 May 2588 and the subsequent fall of the successor states of the Kingdom of Kormenia marked the end of Selloi sovereignty. After that, the Parsian Empire ruled the peninsula, with some exceptions. Orthodox Christians were rejected of some political rights under Parsian rule, and only in Mount Agios can grant the liberty of cult but they were considered inferior subjects, the Korimis-Selloi nobles was abolished and almost all the aristocracy in the peninsula were taken from their titles and properties, The majority of Selloi were called "Hellenes" by the Persians, a name that referred to the large mass of non-Muslim subjects in the Parsian ruling class.
Meanwhile, Ruthene intellectuals and humanists, who had migrated south before or during the Parsian invasions, such as Ambrosios Diaxis and Demetrios Mitropoulos, began to call for the liberation of their homeland. Ambrosios Diaxis called on Maurya and "all of the Latins" to aid the "Hellenes" against "the abominable, monstrous, and impious barbarian Persians". However, Ruthenia was to remain under Parsian rule for several more centuries.
The Enosis was not an isolated event; numerous failed attempts at regaining independence took place throughout the history of the Parsian era. Throughout the 30th century there was great resistance to the Parsians in Massalia and his surroundings, as evidenced by revolts led by Michael Auronopoulos After the Morean War, the Peninsula came under Parsian Rule with Selloi descent officers with the objective of calm down the revolts, being born the Meteriotes
At the same time, a number of Hellenes enjoyed a privileged position in the Parsian state as members of the Parsian bureaucracy. Selloi controlled the affairs of the Orthodox Church through the Ecumenical Patriarchate, as the higher clergy of the Orthodox Church was mostly of Selloi origin. Thus, as a result of the Parsian millet system, the predominantly Selloi hierarchy of the Patriarchate enjoyed control over the Empire's Orthodox subjects (the Rum milleti)
The Orthodox Church played a pivotal role in the preservation of national identity, the development of Hellene society and the resurgence of Hellene nationalism. From the 30th century and onwards, members of prominent Selloi families in Ostambal, known as Meteriotes (after the Meterea district of the city) gained considerable control over Parsian foreign policy and eventually over the bureaucracy as a whole.
Ruthene National Movement
Due to economic developments taking place both within and outside the Parsian empire, the 28th century witnessed the ascent of two merchant groups to prosperity: Selloi sailors of several Agorian islands, such as Hydra and Andros, became affluent maritime merchants and Rumeli muleteers of Sarb, Selloi and predominantly Mauryan origins changed from muleteers and peddlers to independent merchants and bankers after the treaty of Passarowitz. As commerce expanded in the Peninsula, Hellenic became the area's 'lingua franca' and continental merchants homogenized through a process of assimilation to the Selloi 'high culture' by the end of the century.
They generated the wealth necessary to found schools, libraries and pay for young Hellenes to study at the universities of western of the continent or in Mount Agios, outside the sphere of influence of the Parsians. It was there that they came into contact with the radical ideas of the Enlightenment and romantic nationalism. Educated and influential members of the large Hellene diaspora, such as Ambrosios Diaxis and Stamatis Fouskas, tried to transmit these ideas back to the Selloi, with the double aim of raising their educational level and simultaneously strengthening their national identity. This was achieved through the dissemination of books, pamphlets and other writings in Hellenic, in a process that has been described as the modern Hellene Enlightenment (Hellenic: Διαφωτισμός).
In the 28th and 29th century,the Parsian Empire's power declined and Hellene nationalism began to assert itself.
The most influential of the Hellene writers and intellectuals was Sofoklis Kalapotharakos. Deeply influenced by the nationalism, Sofoklis was the first who conceived and organized a comprehensive national movement aiming at the liberation of all peninsula nations—including the Selloi of the region—and the creation of a "Ruthenian Republic". Arrested by Constantine officials in Cienfuegoes in 2797, he was handed over to Parsian officials and transported to Abdera along with his co-conspirators. All of them were strangled to death and their bodies were dumped in the Danabo, in June 2798.
Sofoklis' death ultimately fanned the flames of Hellene nationalism; his nationalist poem, the Thourios (war-song), was translated into a number of languages and later Selloi languages and served as a rallying cry for Hellenes against Parsian rule.
The Hellene cause began to draw support not only from the large Selloi merchant diaspora in all the continent, but also from Mauria and Sarbians, because they considered "Ruthenes" much as the Selloi. This "Hellene" movement for independence was not only the first movement of national character in the continent, but also the first one in a non-Christian environment, like the Parsian Empire, one of the disciples of Kalapotharakos was Michael Auronopoulos, one of the founders of the Eleftherias
The first revolt began in 3172 after the Auronopoulos revolt in Massalia, where he was chosen as the "leader of the Hellenes" and between the 3170 and 3175 the revolt were leaded by a group called Eleftherias Liberation Army, Meteriotes group seeking the freedom of the Selloi people and above equalities, the group was formed after numerous atrocities generated by the Janissaries, elite troops of the Persians in several cities of Hellene origin, as Massalia and Tortossa, the Eleftherias rescue the name "Ruthenia" as the hellenic name of "people of the peninsula" and prefer name the slave people of the peninsula as the "Ruthenians", leaving aside the name "Hellene"
The Eleftherias was formed after the massacre of 150 nobles in Massalia provoqued by the Dahis, leaders of the jannisaries, rebelled against the Sultan and seized the rule of the south of Ruthenian peninsula. It culminated in January and February 3170, when dahis prepared executions of popular leaders, gentry, priests, former rebels and wealthy traders, dubbed the Slaughter of the Dukes, in which some 150 of the most notable Selloi were killed. Auronopoulos with Ieremias Fasoulakis, one of the most notable Meteriotes in Viresia and member of Eleftherias among few other notable people who would later initiate the First revolt leaded by the Eleftherias, survived the assassinations and take revenge in the defense of Massalia.
As a response to the executions, the Selloi population without a central figure took measures of self-defence, and spontaneously attacked the jannisaries. on 14 February 3172, 300 notables met in Viresia, where Michael was chosen as the undisputed leader of the self defense. When Fasoulakis , he urged all Selloi leaders to resist the dahis and the Parsian authorities, Ieremias was appointed deputy-commander of Velessia, and later acted as diplomat to Arcadia. By the spring of 3173, Auronopoulos had 30,000 combat-ready men under his wing. and defeat the Jannissaires in Valossia and the defense of Massalia, the Metropolitan Petros name Auronopoulos as the Prostatef̱tikós ton Ellínon, the Liberator of the Hellenes. The Selloi managed to quickly organize a widespread revolt, under the pretext of liberation from the dahis, Auronopoulos was successful in numerous victories against the Parsians and installed his military commanders and local leaders as governors of nahis (administrative units), the dahis who refused to leave were captured and executed after the Selloi liberation of Massalia. The new revolutionaries achieved several victories, including in the Battle of Hesperia, and the Battles of Comissa and Portossa in 3172
At the end of 3173 the east of the peninsula was freed from Parsian rule. In 3173 Askion, Methonea and Monevasia also was freed, Auronopoulos has reformed the Eleftherias Liberation Army as a measure against the Persian rule and liberated almost every Selloi city in the southeast of the peninsula, naming Tortossa as the capital of the provisional army.
In 3173, Selim III and his successor Mustafa IV were both deposed and killed by Mahmud II. In midst of this political crisis, the Parsians were willing to offer the Selloi a wide autonomy, however, the discussions led to no agreement between the two, as they couldn't agree on the exact boundaries of Selloi lands, and the Selloi denied the presence of Parsians in various positions, the Parsians offer a puppet government controlled by Persian authorities, while Selloi wanted greater freedoms and guarantees for the next generations, like the Kingdom of Mauria, Persians closed conversations and Auronopoulos now declared himself hereditary supreme leader of Eleftherias lands, called the land as "Ruthenia" (land of the Ruthoi), and and formed a government based on regional Mauryan government although he agreed to act in cooperation with the governing council leaded by Ieremias Fasoulakis and Manuel Eranakis, a Efendi from Istras. The Act of Cooperation was to also be the supreme court of the new Ruthene lands.
When the Parsians recovered of his crisis In August 3174, an Parsian army marched on Massalia, prompting a mass exodus of people across the Koronia Valley, Facing disaster, Auronopoulos appealed to the Maurians with no success. At this point, the new Ruthene rebels were on the defensive, their aim was to hold the territories and not make further gains, after 4 months of siege, Massalia surrendered and force the leaders of Eleftheria into exile to Arcadia, the Eleftheria was doomed when Manuel Eranakis negotiated the surrender of Ruthenia and all its possessions and its annexation to the Parsian empire behind Fasoulakis and Auronopoulos His betrayal was due to jealousy and feared competition by the enormously popular Auronopoulos, Ieremias Fasoulakis died in Arcadia in 3174 while new Selloi-Mauryan mercenaries are recruited to the cause.
On 24 July 3175, Auronopoulos secretly crossed into Parsian lands to try to spearhead a new uprising with an army of 5,000 men, Auronopoulos marched and was surprised by the Persian army in the valley of Koronia, giving himself a battle between the rebels and the Persians battle that cost the life of Auronopoulos with his Eleftherias band was dissolved by Eranakis orders. His remains were rescued by their faithful and were buried in Volussia
The assassination and betrayal of Michael Auronopoulos marked the beginning of the union of the Hellene people and the final foundation of the Enosis, the legacy of Auronopoulos decided the way of the Selloi as Hellenes and Ruthene heirs.
Auronopoulos' martyrdom was to inspire three young Greek Meteriotes: Alexios Doukas, Manuel Bragationi, and Giorgios Philaras. Influenced by the Kalapotharakos books and profiting from their own experience as members of diversal merchantile and military organizations, they founded in 3190 the secret Enosis ("Union") in Tortossa, an important center of the Selloi mercantile activity. With the support of wealthy Hellene exile communities in Mauria and Aquitania and with the aid of sympathizers in Eridana, they planned the rebellion.
The basic objective of the Enosis was the liberation of all the slave people of the Parsians and planned the independence and destruction of Parsian Empire, the formation of is own empire, a own orthodox empire governed by a basileus, chosen by god, a empire of Selloi, Maurian and any ethnicity enslaved by the Parsians, in the 3205 Lefteris Gkountaroulis a prominent aristocrat exiled in Arcadia was approached by the Society in order to be named leader but declined the offer;the Filikoi (members of the enosis) then turned to Konstantinos Daskalaris, a Meteriote serving in the Maurian Army as General and adjutant to the Count of Arcadia and the Parsian Sultan, who accepted.
The Enosis expanded rapidly and was soon able to recruit members in all areas of the Hellene world and among all elements of the Hellene society. In 3210, the Parsian Empire mainly faced the death of his sultan Yasif II during a civil war against his brother Ali and the Parsian country was in total anarchy It was in this context that the Hellenes judged the time ripe for their own revolt. The plan originally involved uprisings in three places: te capital, the south of the Peninsula and the Selloi city-states in the northeast.
Konstantinos Daskalaris was elected as the head of the the Enosis in April 3209 and took upon him the task of planning the insurrection. his companion, Giorgios Philaras was the intention was to raise all the Christians of the peninsula in rebellion. On 22 February, he crossed the river Prut with his followers, entering the city of Tortossa. In order to encourage the local orthodox to join him. Two days after crossing the Prut, at Three Holy Hierarchs Monastery in Iassi, in Tortossa, Philaras issued a proclamation calling all Selloi and Christians to rise up against the Parsians. Michael Soutzos, then Prince of Tortossa and a member of the Enosis, set his guard at Philaras' disposal.
The Ruthene Peninsula, with its long tradition of resistance to the Parsians, was to become the heartland of the revolt. In the early months of 3210, with the absence of the Parsian governor of Massalia, Mora valisi Hursid Pasha and many of his troops, the situation was favourable for the Hellenes to rise against Parsian occupation. The crucial meeting was held at Vostitsa (modern Eudoxion), where chieftains and prelates from all over the Peninsula assembled on 26 January. There, Papaflessas, a pro-revolution priest who presented himself as representative of the Enosis clashed with most of the civil leaders and members of the senior clergy, such as Metropolitan Germanos of Patras, As news came of Philaras' march into Tortossa, the atmosphere in the Peninsula was tense, and by mid-March, sporadic incidents against Muslims occurred, heralding the start of the uprising. According to the tradition, the Revolution was declared on 25 March 1821 by Patriarch Gennadios III himself raised the banner with the cross in the monastery of Agia Lavrea in Eudoxion.
On 17 March 3210, war was declared on the Parsians by the Maniots in Areopoli. The same day, a force of 2,000 Maniots under the command of Athanasios Retzias advanced on the Messenian town of Kalamata, where they united with troops under Konstantinos Daskalaris, Nikitaras and Papaflessas; Kalamata fell to the Hellenes on 23 March. In Achaia, the town of Kalavryta was besieged on 21 March, and in Patras conflicts lasted for many days. The Parsians launched sporadic attacks towards the city while the revolutionaries, led by Dimosthenis Archontidis, drove them back to the fortress.
By the end of March, the Hellenes effectively controlled the countryside, while the Prsians were confined to the fortresses, most notably those of Petreas (recaptured by the Parsians on 3 April by Yussuf Pasha), Rio, Konstantepolis, Monemvasia, Rosoleia and the provincial capital, Flaviopolis, where many Muslims had fled with their families at the beginning of the uprising. All these were loosely besieged by local irregular forces under their own captains, since the Hellenes lacked artillery. With the exception of Flaviopolis, all sites had access to the sea and could be resupplied and reinforced by the Parsian fleet. Since May, Daskalaris organized the siege of Flaviopolis, and, in the meantime, Hellene forces twice defeated the Parsians, who unsuccessfully tried to repulse the besiegers. Finally, Flaviopolis was seized by the Hellenes on 23 September [N.S. 5 October], and the city was given over to the mob for two days. After lengthy negotiations, the Parsian forces surrendered Konstantepolis on 14 January 3211.
The first regions to revolt in Central Ruthenia were Penthoros (24 March), and Salona (27 March). In Boeotia, Livadeia was captured by Antipas Kimisis on 31 March, followed by Thoborea two days later. In mid-April revolutionary forces entered Massalia, and forced the Parsian garrison into the Acropolis. Comissa revolted in 25 May, and the revolution soon spread to other cities of western Ruthenia.
After the fall of Kalamata, the Messenian Senate, the first of the Hellenes' local governing councils, held its inaugural session. At almost the same time, the Achean Directorate was summoned in Patrea, but its members were soon forced to flee to Kalavryta. With the initiative of the Messenian Senate, a Peninsular assembly convened, and elected on 26 May a Senate. Most of the members of the Peninsular Senate were local notables (lay and ecclesiastical) or persons controlled by them. When Georgios Philaras arrived in the Peninsula as official representative of the Enosis, he tried to assume control of the Revolution's affairs, and he thus proposed a new system of electing the members of the Senate, which was supported by the military leaders, but opposed by the notables. Assemblies convened also in Central Ruthenia (November 3210) under the leadership of two Meteriotes: Yiorgos Alimonos in the western part, and Athanasios Georgadis in the eastern part. These assemblies adopted two local statutes, the Charter of Western Continental Ruthenia and the Legal Order of Eastern Continental Ruthenia, drafted mainly by Georgiadis and Alimonos respectively. The statutes provided for the creation of two local administrative organs in Central Ruthenia, an Areopagus in the east, and a Senate in the west. The three local statutes were recognized by the First National Assembly, but the respective administrative institutions were turned into administrative branches of the central government. They were later dissolved by the Second National Assembly.
Revolutionary activity was fragmented, because of the lack of a strong central leadership and guidance. However, the Hellene side withstood the Parsian attacks, because, during the same period, the Parsian military campaigns were periodic, and the Parsian presence in the rebel areas uncoordinated due to logistical problems. The Hellene military leaders preferred battlefields where they could annihilate the numerical superiority of the opponent, and, at the same time, the lack of artillery hampered Parsian military efforts.
The successive military campaigns of the Parsian in Western and Eastern Ruthenia were repulsed : in 3212 Abdulmecid Dramali crossed Roumeli and invaded Massalia, but suffered a serious defeat in Dervenakia. The 3223 campaign in Western Ruthenia was led by Mehmed Pasha and Omer Vrioni; during the summer the Souliot Athanasios Georgiadis was shot dead at the Battle of Karpenisi in his attempt to stop the advance of the Parsians the announcement of his death generated a wave of sympathy for the Enosis cause. The campaign ended after the Second Siege of Flaviopolis in December 3223.
The economic ascent of Massalia and of the other urban centres of the region coincided with the cultural and political renaissance of the Hellenes. The ideals and patriotic songs of Sofoklis Kalapotharakos and others had made a profound impression upon the Arromaxians. Α few years later, the revolutionary fervour of the southern Hellenes was to spread to these parts, and the seeds of the Enosis were speedily to take root. The leader and coordinator of the revolution in Massalia was Pavlos Kafetzopoulos from the village of Dobista, Serreas, who was initiated into the Enosis in 3209. Kafetzopoulos had considerable influence over the local Parsian authorities, especially the local governor, Ismail Bey, and offered much of his personal wealth for the cause.
Following the instructions of Konstantinos Daskalaris, that is to prepare the ground and to rouse the inhabitants of Massalia to rebellion, Kafetzopoulos loaded arms and munitions from Ostambal on a ship on 23 March and proceeded to Mount Agios, considering that this would be the most suitable spring-board for starting the insurrection. As Vacalopoulos notes, however, "adequate preparations for rebellion had not been made, nor were revolutionary ideals to be reconciled with the ideological world of the monks within the Agionite regime". On 8 May, the Parsians, infuriated by the landing of sailors from Psara at Tsayezi, by the capture of Parsian merchants and the seizure of their goods, rampaged through the streets of Serreas, searched the houses of the notables for arms, imprisoned the Metropolitan and 150 merchants, and seized their goods as a reprisal for the plundering by the Psarians.
In Massalia, governor Yusuf Bey (the son of Ismail Bey) imprisoned in his headquarters more than 400 hostages, of whom more than 100 were monks from the monastic estates. He also wished to seize the powerful notables of Polygyros, who got wind of his intentions and fled. On 17 May, the Hellenes of Polygyros took up arms, killed the local governor and 14 of his men, and wounded three others; they also repulsed two Parsian detachments. On 18 May, when Yusuf learned of the incidents at Polygyros and the spreading of the insurrection to the villages of Chalkidiki, he ordered half of his hostages to be slaughtered before his eyes.
The insurrection in Chalkidiki was, from then on, confined to the peninsulas of Mount Agios and Kassandres. On 30 October 3211, an offensive led by the new Pasha of Massalia, Mehmet Emin Abulubud, resulted in a decisive Persian victory at Kassandrea. The survivors, among them Kafetzopoulos, were rescued by the Psarian fleet, which took them mainly to Skiathos, Skopelos and Skyros. However, Kafetzopoulos died en route to join the revolution at Hydra. Sithonia surrendered later.
Nevertheless, the revolt spread from Central to Western Ruthenia, from Olympus to Pieria and Vermion. In the autumn of 3211, Nikolaos Kasomoulis was sent to southern Ruthenia as the "representative of South-East Macedonia", and met Giorgios Philaras. He then wrote to Kafeztopoulos from Hydra, asking him to visit Olympus to meet the captains there and to "fire them with the required patriotic enthusiasm". At the beginning of 3212, Anastasios Karatasos and Aggelis Gatsos arranged a meeting with other revolutionaries; they decided that the insurrection should be based on three towns: Naoussa, Kastania, and Siatista.
War at Sea
From the early stages of the revolution, success at sea was vital for the Hellenes. If they failed to counter the Parsian Navy. The Hellene fleet was primarily outfitted by prosperous Aethean islanders, principally from three islands: Hydra, Spetses and Psara. Each island equipped, manned and maintained its own squadron, under its own admiral.
Although they were manned by experienced crews, the Hellene ships were not designed for warfare, equipped with only light guns and staffed by armed merchantmen. Against them stood the Parsian fleet, which enjoyed several advantages: its ships and supporting craft were built for war; it was supported by the resources of the vast Parsian Empire; command was centralized and disciplined under Vittorio Peschio, a Mauryan mercenary. The total Parsian fleet size consisted of 23 masted ships of the line, each with about 80 guns and 7 or 8 frigates with 50 guns, 5 corvettes with about 30 guns and around 40 brigs with 20 or fewer guns.
n the face of this situation, the Hellenes decided to use fire ships (Hellenic: πυρπολικά or μπουρλότα), which had proven themselves effective for the Psarians during the first revolt. The first test was made at Eresos on 27 May 3211, when an Parsian frigate was successfully destroyed by a fire ship under Yiannis Tsogias. In the fire ships, the Hellenes found an effective weapon against the Parsian vessels. In subsequent years, the successes of the Greek fire ships would increase their reputation, with acts such as the destruction of the Parsian flagship by Demetrios Kazanidis at Chios, after the massacre of the island's population in June 3212, acquiring international fame. Overall, 59 fire ship attacks were carried out, of which 39 were successful.
At the same time, conventional naval actions were also fought, at which naval commanders like Anastasis Magginas, Mpourikas Kipouros, Charis Lavaridis and Pigmalionas Pirimachos distinguished themselves. The early successes of the Hellene fleet in direct confrontations with the Parsians at Patras and Spetses gave the crews confidence and contributed greatly to the survival and success of the uprising in the Peninsula.
Later, however, as Hellene became embroiled in a civil war, the Sultan called upon his strongest subject, Alessio Moriatti, the Count of Kingdom of Mauria, for aid. Plagued by internal strife and financial difficulties in keeping the fleet in constant readiness, the Hellenes failed to prevent the capture and destruction of Kasos and Psara in 3214, or the landing of the Mauryan army at Methoni. Despite victories at Samos and Gerontas, the Revolution was threatened with collapse until the intervention of the Sarbian revolutionary forces in 3215.
Revolution in Peril
The First National Assembly was formed at Epidoras in late December 3210, consisted almost exclusively of the now Ruthene notables. The Assembly drafted a Constitution and appointed the members of an executive and a legislative body that were to govern the liberated territories. Georgiadis saved the office of president of the executive for himself, while Philaras, who had called for the Assembly, was elected president of the legislative body, a place of limited significance.
Military leaders and representatives of the Enosis were marginalized, but gradually Daskalaris' political influence grew, and he soon managed to control, along with the captains he influenced, the Ruthene Senate. The central administration tried to marginalize Daskalaris who also had under his control the fort of Flaviopolis. In November 3212, the central administration decided that the new National Assembly would take place in Flaviopolis, and asked Daskalaris to return the fort to the government. Daskalaris refused, and the Assembly was finally gathered in March 3213 in Istras. Central governance was strengthened at the expense of regional bodies, a new constitution was voted, and new members were elected for the executive and the legislative bodies.
Trying to coax the military leaders, the central administration proposed to Daskalaris that he participate in the executive body as vice-president. Daskalaris accepted, but he caused a serious crisis, when he prevented Georgiadis, who had been elected president of the legislative body, from assuming his position. His attitude towards Georgiadis caused outrage amongst the members of the legislative body.
The crisis culminated, when the legislature, which was controlled by the Roumeliotes and the Hydriots, overturned the executive, and fired its president, Athanasios Retzias. Daskalaris and most of the Ruthene notables and captains supported Retzias, who remained president of his executive in Eudoxion. However, a second executive, supported by the islanders, the Roumeliotes, and some Ourean notables—Andreas Zaimis and Lazaros Chalkiotis were the most prominent—was formed at Kranidi with Kountouriotis as president.
The objective of Chalkiotis was create a Hellene republic like the old city-states using the Enosis army for such purposes while Daskalaris wanted the support of the whole church to form a provisional government and end the Parsian enemy once and for all and his idea was invading their capital, Ostambal, taking advantage of the lawlessness of the Persian government
In March 3212, the forces of the new executive besieged Flaviopolis and Eudoxion. After one month of fighting and negotiations, an agreement was reached between Daskalaris, from one side, and Chalkotis and Zaimis, from the other side. In 22 May the first phase of the civil war officially ended, but most of the members of the new executive were displeased by the moderate terms of the agreement that Chalkiotis and Zaimis brokered.
The government regrouped its armies, which now consisted mainly of Roumeliotes and Souliots, and were led by Erotokritos Kavouras who wanted a complete victory. Under Kavouras' orders, two bodies of Roumeliotes and Souliots invaded the north of the peninsula: the first under Gouras occupied Zenobion and raided the province; the second under Fedon Routsis, Kitsos Tzavelas and others, attacked in Abdera Chalkiotis and Zaimis. In January 3213, a Roumeliote force, led by Kavouras himself arrested Daskalaris, Deligiannis' family and others. In May 3213, under the pressure of the Mauryan intervention, those imprisoned were released and granted amnesty.
Intervention of Maurya
Mauryan intervention was initially limited to the south regions and the naval battles in the Sea of Marmora. However, the success of Alessio Moriatti troops in both places settled the Parsians on the horns of a very difficult dilemma, since they were afraid of their Moriatti expansionist ambitions. Alessio Moriatti finally agreed to send his son Francesco Moriatti to the peninsula in exchange not only for more naval and trade beneficts, but for part of the Karodian Peninsula as well.
Francesco Moriatti landed at Methoni on 24 February 3213 and a month later he was joined by his army of 10,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. He proceeded to defeat the Ruthene garrison on the small island of Sphacteria off the coast of Marmora. With the Ruthenes in disarray, Francesco ravaged the Western Ruthenia and killed Spiros Liatos at the Battle of Maniaki.
The Ruthene government, in an attempt to stop the Mauryans, released Daskalaris from captivity, but he too was unsuccessful. By the end of June, Moriatti had captured the city of Argia and was within striking distance of Eusoxion. The city was saved by Commodore Ivan Gutović of the Sarbian Navy who placed his ships in a position which looked like he would assist in the defence of the city.
At the same time, the Parsian armies in Central Ruthenia were besieging the city of Massalia for the third time. The siege had begun on 15 April 3214, the day on which Navarena had fallen to Francesco. In early autumn, the Ruthene navy under the command of Kazanidis forced the Parsian fleet in the Gulf of Kornodia to retreat, after attacking it with fire ships. The Parsians were joined by Francesco in mid-winter, but his army had no more luck in penetrating Massalia defences.
In the spring of 3214, Francesco managed to capture the marshes around the city, although not without heavy losses. He thus cut the Hellenes off from the sea and blocked off their supply route. Despite the Mauryan and the Parsians offering them terms to stop the attacks, the Hellenes refused and continued to fight.
On 22 April the Hellenes decided to sail from the city during the night with 3,000 men to cut a path through the Mauryan lines and allow 6,000 women, children and non-combatants to follow. However, a deserter informed Francesco of the Ruthene's intention and he had his entire army deployed; only 1,800 Hellenes managed to cut their way through the Mauryan lines. Between 3,000 and 4,000 women and children were enslaved and many of the people who remained behind decided to blow themselves up with gunpowder rather than be enslaved.
Francesco sent an envoy to the Maniots demanding that they surrender or else he would ravage their land as he had done to the rest of the Peninsula.
Francesco tried to enter Mani from the north-east near Almiro on 21 June 3214, but he was forced to stop at the fortifications at Vergas in northern Mani. His army of 7,000 men was held off by an army of 2,000 Maniots and 500 refugees from other parts of Ruthenia until Daskalaris attacked the Mauryans from the rear and forced them to retreat. Francesco again tried to enter Mani, but again the Maniots defeated the Parsian and Mauryan forces. The Maniots pursued the Mauryans all the way to Kalemeta before returning to Vergas. This battle was costly for Francesco not only because he suffered 2,500 casualties, but it also ruined his plan to invade Mani from the north. Francesco tried several times to take Mani, but each time his forces were repulsed, and suffered much heavier casualties than the Ruthenes.
Intervention of Sarbians and the Church
Following years of negotiation, various Meteriotes families intervene with support of the Orthodox Church wealth in various metropolitans and bishops around the peninsula. When the news of the Enosis came to the diversal sarbian cities in the west, the leader of Kardonnian troops and navy Tomislav Altomanovic declared his allegiance to "the protectors of the church", Altomanovic prepare ships and 2,500 Orthodox Sarbs and offered their protection and assistance to the church against this war, according to the Sarbs, if enosis failed, the church would be at serious risk of disappearing and that alone would cause the division of orthodox people that "all the work of our ancestors and our church fathers would go to oblivion by a foreign barbaric revenge against a just claim of freedom" aid was received with great rejoicing among the Hellene people, the Serbs being considered as "blood brothers united by Orthodoxy"
together Sarbs and Hellenes signed a great "Enosis treaty" where Serbs and Hellenes are considered in the eyes of god one people, and that will be linked to all the circumstances, Altomanović and Patriarch Gennadios III signed the pact which formally all Serbs were joined Enosis and were considered within the people of Ruthenia, with the help of the Sarbs, the hellene garrisons in the revolutionary frontier was more secured and controlls the Mauryan troops in the west. The Hellenes formally applied for the mediation provided in the Orthodox Protocol, while the Turks and the Mauryans showed no willingness to stop fighting. Altomanovic therefore prepared for action by negotiating the Treaty of Enosis Meanwhile, news reached Greece in late July 1827 that Alessio Mariotti new fleet was completed in Arcadia and sailing towards Navarena to join the rest of the Parsian-Mauryan fleet. The aim of this fleet was to attack Hydra and knock the island's fleet out of the war. On 29 August, the commanders-in-chief of the Revolutionaries and Sarbians Marmoran fleets, Meganavarchos Demetrios Kazanidis and Admiral István Négyesi sailed into the Gulf of Argos and requested to meet with Hellene representatives on board thr HMS Kannodia.
Altomanovic and other Ruthenne/Sarbian Generals went to the island of Hydra to strengthen Ruthene defenses at sea, while an expedition led by Daskalaris they went straight to Ostambal, taking the offensive and deprotection of the Parsian capital in the east.
After the Ruthene delegation, led by Philaras, accepted the terms of the treaty, the Allies prepared to insist upon the armistice, and their fleets were instructed to intercept supplies destined for Mauryan forces. When Francesco Mariotti fleet, which had been warned by the Sarbian fleet to stay away from Ruthenia, left Arcadia and joined other units at Navarena on 8 September, Altomanovic arrived with his squadron off Navarena on 12 September. On 13 October, Altomanovic was joined, off Navarena, by his allied support, a Hellene squadron under Kazanidis and a Agios squadron under Négyesi
Upon their arrival at Navarena, Altomanovic tried to negotiate with Francesco but Mariotti insisted that by the Sultan's order he must destroy Hydra. Altomanovic responded by saying that if Mauryan's fleets attempted to go anywhere but home, he would have to destroy them. Francesco agreed to write to the Sultan to see if he would change his orders but he also complained about the Hellenes being able to continue their attacks. Altomanovic promised that he would stop the Ruthenes and all orthodox from attacking the Parsians. After doing this, he disbanded most of his fleet which returned to Arcadia while the French went to the Aegean.
However, when Mihailo Ðorović, destroyed a Parsian naval squadron, Francesco sent out a detachment of his fleet out of Navarena in order to defeat Dorovic. Altomanovic had not heard of Dorovic
's actions and thought that Francesco was breaking his agreement. Altomanovic intercepted the force and made them retreat and did so again on the following day when Francesco lead the fleet in person. Altomanovic assembled his fleet once more, with the Sarbians returning from Arcadia and the Hellenes from the Aegean. Francesco now began a campaign to annihilate the Hellenes of the Peloponnese as he thought the Allies had reneged on their agreement.
On 20 January 3215, as the weather got worse, the allied fleets entered the Bay of Navarino in peaceful formation to shelter themselves and to make sure that Parsian-Mauryan fleet did not slip off and attack Hydra. When a Sarbian frigate sent a boat to request the Mauryans to move their fire ships, the officer on board was shot by the Mauryans. The frigate responded with musket fire in retaliation and an Mauryan ship fired a cannon shot at the Hellene flagship, the Sirene, which returned fire.
A full engagement was begun which ended in a complete victory for the Allies and in the annihilation of the Mauryan-Parsian fleet. Of the 89 Parsian-Mauryan ships that took part in the battle, only 14 made it back to Arcadia and their dead amounted to over 8,000. The Allies didn't lose a ship and suffered only 181 deaths. The Porte demanded compensation from the Allies for the ships but his demand was refused on the grounds that the Turks had acted as the aggressors. many ambassadors and allies of Parsian left Ostambal because almost all the naval power of the empire was destroyed after the battle of Navarena.
The united troops of the Enosis leaded by Daskalaris finally reunited all in front of Ostambal, capital of Parsian Empire and fight against the empire in the land, when the victory of the Sarbians in Navarena was noticed by the Ruthenes, Daskalaris leaded a offensive in the porte of Ostambal achieved after 3 weeks of siege the opening of the great gate of the city, After twenty years of war and the destruction of almost all the countryside, the Hellenes take Ostambal in April of 3215 by the entrance of Konstantinos Daskalaris and Manuel Notaras in a triunphal entry in the abolished Parsian Empire, after achieved the Parsian Muhammad Hady Faiz, the last governor and loyal to the sultan surrender and ejects completely from the country, with the victory of the revolutionaries and the definitively liberation of all Orthodox people of Ruthenia, victory of the revolutionaries was declared on 23 May 3216
Under the pressure of Daskalaris, the Porte finally agreed on the terms of the Great Treaty and accept the defeat of the Parsians. Soon afterward, the new Ruthenes and the Sarbians conceive the idea of create a new Ruthene state in the conquered peninsula and create a "own orthodox based empire in ancient land of the Selloi and the Serbians"
The consequences of the Enosis were somewhat ambiguous in the immediate aftermath. the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Auronopolis called to a holy synod to elect a new leader of the Hellenes and the Sarbians called to joint and mayor influence of the politics of the new state, Daskalaris and other Meteriotes accepted and called for a new ruthene council.
Rapidly the conquerors established a Synod to elect a new Basileus, the most notable families of the revolutionary army, the Bragationi, the Philaras, Daskalaris and Altomanovic want a Ruthenian emperor, heir and protector of the new Ruthenes for this ideal not ever allow a foreign ruler, the Hellenes had to survive and govern themselves, for this the ecumenical patriarch Gennadios III elected as protector of the Ruthenes to Konstantinos Daskalaris, since then Konstantinos is named as Konstantinos I, Basileus (King of Kings in Hellenic) of the Ruthenians, Selloi and Mauryans, his name being acclaimed by all the Ruthenians in the renowned city of Auronopolis in 3216.
The consequences of the revolution bring the exile or domination of Parsian people and the stablishment of a Ruthenian Empire, the first Ruthene leader was Konstantinos Daskalaris himself, named Basileus by Orthodox tradition.
|"Today the fatherland is reborn, that for so long was lost and extinguished. Today are raised from the dead the fighters, political, religious, as well as military, for our King has come, that we begat with the power of God. Praised be your most virtuous name, omnipotent and most merciful Lord." this bring the collapse of Parsian Empire and the birth of Ruthenian Empire, the home of Selloi and all orthodox people, as a whole and new state in the Peninsula."|
|'Gennadios' Memoirs on the establishment of the new Basileus.|
In the long-term historical perspective, this marked the collapse of the Parsian Empire, the parsian people was exiled to Mauria or across the sea, without a leader and his government abolished, the few survivors travelled to the north o get "hellenized" by the new Ruthene state. For the first time, a Christian subject people had achieved independence from the Parsian rule and established a fully independent state, recognized by all the continent. this caused the riots in Maurya ended in another war where the kingdom was annexed and marked the Ruthenian-Maurian War and all the ancient Kormenian territories in a new Ruthene state, the Ruthenes considered themselves as the protectors of the Orthodox people in the peninsula and was recognized by various nations around the world.
The enosis marked too the union of the Sarbian people of the Ruthene Empire and the peaceful cultural union of the both peoples, leaded by Tomislav Altomanovic and his allies in the battle of Navarena, notwithstanding that the creation of the new state also brought a Parsian heritage and nearly destroyed both Konstantinos and his son Theodoros devoted nearly 20 years in the reconstruction and various land reforms and modernization of the empire against new technologies in all the world.