|States General of Ruthenia|
Μέλη της γενικής Ρουθηνία
Méli̱ ti̱s genikí̱s Routhi̱nía
Chamber of Deputies
|President of Senate (Proboulos)||Anastasios Tornikes|
|Speaker of Deputies||Martha Kalogeropoulos|
|Senate voting System||Elected by Basileus and Imperial Council|
|Deputies voting system||Mayority Rule|
|The Vesiris Palati|
|Empire of Ruthenia|
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'The States General of Ruthenia (Méli̱ ti̱s genikí̱s Routhi̱nía) is the bicameral legislature of the Ruthenian Empire, At the head is the Basileus consisting of the Senate (Gerousía) and the Chamber of Deputies (Vouleftíria). The States General meets at the Vesiris Palati in Auronopolis
The States General is bicameral, consisting of an upper house (The Senate) and a lower house (The Chamber of Deputies). The Basileus forms the third component of the legislature. The Senate includes four different types of members: The Apostéllontai (the Ecumenical Patriarch of Auronopolis delegate), The Axiosi̱meío̱ti̱ (Notable nobles and aristocracy of the Empire), the Kli̱ronomikoí (Ruthenian nobles appointed as hereditary peers by the Basileus)and the Symmathi̱tés (Ruthenian citizens appointed as life peers). these members are appointed by the Basileus on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The Chamber of Deputies is a democratically elected chamber with elections held at least every ten years. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Old Vizir Palace in Auronopolis. Basilika Decree, all government members of the Imperial Council, including the Prime Minister, are members of the Chamber of Deputies – or, less commonly, the The Senate – and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature.
The States General is an institution inherited from the Parsians, who knew their legislative power in the "council of vizires" where the sultan met the Persian vizires all his empire to discuss certain military and religious issues.
After the fall of the Parsian Empire, the new emperor proposed the creation of a parliament with legislative character and advisor on all legislative and administrative matters of the empire, with the desire to find a place where all the states and the citizens of the empire had its representation, such representation materialized in the first place with the creation of the imperial council and then parliament, imitating the customs of a foreign legislature with "advisory character" the Basileus called a council of 5 judges for the formation of the new States General, which highlights Ioannes Markezinis and Thomas Batatzes
Parliament gave birth in 3221 and was the first Proboulos was Thomas Batatzes and the Omilitikas was Markezinis
In 3260, the Basileus created a Basilika decree renaming the Parliament to "States General" for the better representation of their "global interests"
Composition and Powers
The legislative authority, has three separate elements: the Basileus, the Senate(Gerousía) and the Chamber of Deputies (Vouleftíria). No individual may be a member of both Houses, and members of the Gerousía are legally barred from voting in elections for members of the Vouleftiria.
Imperial Assent of the Basileus is required for all Bills to become law, and certain Delegated Legislation must be made by the Basileus by Order in Council. The Basileus also has executive powers which do not depend on Parliament, through prerogative powers, which include among others the ability to make treaties, create imperial (Basilika) decrees, declare war, award dignities, offices and titles, and appoint officers and civil servants. The Prime Minister and Imperial Council are directly accountable to Parliament, through its control of public finances, and to the public, through election of Members of Parliament.
The Basileus also chooses the Prime Minister between members of the Imperial Council, who then forms a government from members of the houses of parliament. This must be someone who could command a majority in a confidence vote in the Vouleftiria. All bills except money bills are debated and voted upon in Gerousía; however by voting against a bill, the Gerousía can only delay it for a maximum of two parliamentary sessions over a year. After this time, the Vouleftiría can force the Bill through without the Gerousia' consent under the Parliament Acts. The Senate can also hold the government to account through questions to government ministers and the operation of a small number of select committees.
The Apóstellontai is a delegate representing the Orthodox Church directly appointed by the Ecumenical Patriarch. The Axiosi̱meío̱ti are all notable nobles and aristocracy members of the Empire, selected by the Basileus or by his Amni̱mónef̱tos (inmemorial nobility), there various members selected and chosen by his blood and lineage, represents one of the aristocratic interests of the empire. The Kli̱ronomikoí are the Ruthenian nobles appointed as hereditary peers by the Basileus the peers in Ruthenia as known as zév̱gos and its considered a dignity, all zévgos are nobles but no all nobles are zévgos. and finally the Symmathi̱tés, Ruthenian notable citizens appointed as life zévgos (peers) by the basileus The Chamber of Deputies (Vouleftíria), the commons and other peoples of the empire, are represented in theVouleftíria, which is formally styled The Honourable Chamber of Deputies in Parliament Assembled. The House currently consists of 514 members. Each "Member of Parliament" or "MP" is chosen by a single constituency according to the Majority rule electoral system. Universal adult suffrage exists for those 18 and over; citizens of the Empire, unless they are in prison at the time of the elections. The term of members of the Vouleftíria depends on the term of Parliament, a maximum of ten years; a general election, during which all the seats are contested, occurs after each dissolution.
All legislation must be passed by the Vouleftíria to become law and it controls taxation and the supply of money to the government. the Imperial Council (including the Prime Minister) must regularly answer questions in the Volefitria and there are a number of select committees that scrutinise particular issues and the workings of the government. There are also mechanisms that allow members of the Vouleftiria to bring to the attention of the government particular issues affecting their constituents.
The Imperial Opening of Parliament is an annual event that marks the commencement of a session of the Parliament. It is held in the Gerousía Chamber, usually in November or December, or in a general election year, when the new Parliament first assembles.
The Basileus reads a prepared speech, outlining the Government's agenda for the coming year. The speech is written by the Basileus, and reflects the legislative agenda for which they seek the agreement of both Houses of Parliament.
Both houses of the Ruthenian Parliament are presided over by a Omili̱tí̱kas (chief speaker), the president of the Senate is called by the basileus as the Proboulos and represent the link between the Parliament and the Imperial Family
For the Vouleftíria, the approval of the Basileus is theoretically required before the election of the Proboulos becomes valid. The Omilítikas place may be taken by three deputies, known as the próedros to̱n voulef̱tó̱n (Chairman of Deputies), pró̱tos Anapli̱ro̱tí̱s (First Deputy) and Déf̱teros Antipróedros (Second Deputy of Conducts).
Laws can be made by Acts and Decrees of the Ruthenian Parliament, the acts come from the Vouleftíria initiative and the Decrees from the Imperial initiative, in draft form known as bills, may be introduced by any member of either House, but usually a bill is introduced by a Minister of the Imperial Court. A bill introduced by a Minister is known as a "Government Bill"; one introduced by another member is called a "Private Member's Bill". A different way of categorising bills involves the subject. Most bills, involving the general public, are called "Common Bills". A bill that seeks to grant special rights to an individual or small group of individuals, or a body such as a local authority, is called a "Private Bill". A Public Bill which affects private rights (in the way a Private Bill would) is called a "Hybrid Bill".
Private Members' Bills make up the majority of bills, but are far less likely to be passed than government bills. There are three methods for an MP to introduce a Private Member's Bill. The Private Members' Ballot (once per Session) put names into a ballot, and those who win are given time to propose a bill. The Ten Minute Rule is another method, where MPs are granted ten minutes to outline the case for a new piece of legislation. Standing Order 57 is the third method, which allows a bill to be introduced without debate if a day's notice is given to the Table Office. Filibustering is a danger, as an opponent to a bill can waste much of the limited time allotted to it. Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example. Governments can sometimes attempt to use Private Members' Bills to pass things it would rather not be associated with. "Handout bills" are bills which a government hands to MPs who win Private Members' Ballots.
Each Bill goes through several stages in each House. The first stage, called the first reading, is a formality. At the second reading, the general principles of the bill are debated, and the House may vote to reject the bill, by not passing the motion "That the Bill be now read a second time". Defeats of Government Bills are extremely rare.
Following the second reading, the bill is sent to a committee. In the Gerousía, the Committee of the Whole House or the Grand Committee are used. Each consists of all members of the House; the latter operates under special procedures, and is used only for uncontroversial bills. In the Vouleftíria , the bill is usually committed to a Public Bill Committee, consisting of between 16 and 50 members, but the Committee of the Whole House is used for important legislation.
Once the House has considered the bill, the third reading follows. In the Vouleftíria, no further amendments may be made, and the passage of the motion "That the Bill be now read a third time" is passage of the whole bill. In the Gerousía further amendments to the bill may be moved. After the passage of the third reading motion, the Gerousía must vote on the motion "That the Bill do now pass." Following its passage in one House, the bill is sent to the other House. If passed in identical form by both Houses, it may be presented for the Sovereign's Assent. If one House passes amendments that the other will not agree to, and the two Houses cannot resolve their disagreements, the bill fails.
In the Decrees procedure are more faster, commonly directly goes to the Gerousía where its viability and urgency is discussed (proveniendo of imperial initiative, it is presumed by the grace of God it's urgent) and yes it is accepted, it becomes Direct law for the whole empire, the Vouleftíria only emendation and are entitled to a purely advisory role on certain matters of decree, these decrees are named as "Basilika Decrees" and deal with certain matters comprehensively reforming an institution either imperial or fundamental rights, the Basilika decree of tolerance andthe Basilika Decree of reformation of titles of nobility (also known as the Pronoia)
Relationship with the Imperial Family
The role of the Ruthenian Parliament is at first glance, a role merely legislative, representative and advisor imperial affairs concerning these roles, Legislature that the Vouleftíria is the representative organ of all those represented throughout the empire, regulating and supervising the successful creation of local, provincial and imperial laws that affect their interests according to the district they represent, also have a role created laws and proposing administrative and imperial laws that address the issues they deem appropriate.
The Gerousía have a advisory role with wide variety of functions were carried out by the different departments into which it was divided. an audit office; one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. It also had supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the Empire. He served as the link between the sovereign and the Senate and acted, in the Basileus own words, as "the sovereign's eye", all the laws, acts and decrees pass through the eye of proboulos and Gerousía, where they discuss and take an advisory role on the topics discussed in these laws also for approval of almost all existing laws (except for the government budget and military recruitment) and the imperial family should consider arrangements and revisions made by the Gerousía on these issues prior to final publication of the law, if the law is issued by the Basileus (Decree), the Gerousía takes a role amendment and advisor on details of the discussed decree, without modification in its entirety
The Basileus may call certain members of the Gerousía for advice on specific legislative topics that are relevant and for "legislative state of the Empire" this call may do so up to 5 times per month.
Each House of Parliament possesses and guards various ancient privileges. The Gerousía relies on inherent right. In the case of the Vouleftíria, the Omilitikas goes to the Gerousia' Chamber at the beginning of each new Parliament and requests representatives of the Basileus to confirm the Vouleftíria "undoubted" privileges and rights. The ceremony observed by the Vouleftíria. Each House is the guardian of its privileges, and may punish breaches thereof. The extent of parliamentary privilege is based on law and custom.
The foremost privilege claimed by both Houses is that of freedom of speech in debate; nothing said in either House may be questioned in any court or other institution outside Parliament. Another privilege claimed is that of freedom from arrest; at one time this was held to apply for any arrest except for high treason, felony or breach of the peace but it now excludes any arrest on criminal charges; it applies during a session of Parliament, and 40 days before or after such a session. Members of both Houses are no longer privileged from service on juries.
Both Houses possess the power to punish breaches of their privilege. Contempt of Parliament—for example, disobedience of a subpoena issued by a committee—may also be punished. The Gerousía may imprison an individual for any fixed period of time, but an individual imprisoned by the Vouleftíria is set free upon prorogation. The punishments imposed by either House may not be challenged in any court, and the Human Rights Act does not apply.
The quasi-official emblem of the Houses of Parliament is Ruthenian Double-seal. The Seal was originally the badge of the Palace of Blanchernas. but in 3230 the Basileus Theodoros I granted the right to the coat of arms to the parliament and proposed rescue of the symbol to represent the Parliament of the Hellenes, that proposition was reflected in an Basilika decree and was approved quickly in less than a month.
The stamp depicts the "union of the empire (the flag with the tetragramic cross) with the imperial family, such binding is reflected in parliament"