|Principality of Kormenia|
Prinkipáto ti̱s Kormenías
|Official language||Kormis, Hellenic, Maurian|
|Capital||Klassraria or Beretea (From the reigns of Cyrano and Álmos)|
|Grand Prince||Klassr (850) (First)|
|- Fondation||9th Century|
|- Coronation of St. Stephanos||25 Dec, 1000|
The Principality of Kormenia or Duchy of Kormenia (Hellenic: Αρμενίων πριγκιπάτο: "Kormenian Grand Principality") was the earliest documented Selloi state in the Rothinoi Peninsula, established 895 following the 9th century Korimi conquest of the Rothinoi Peninsula.
The Korimis, a semi-nomadic people forming a tribal alliance led by Klassr, founded the Principality of Kormenia at the very end of the 9th century. They arrived from Kolomea which was their earlier principality east of the Peninsula.
During the period, the power of the Kormenian Grand Prince seemed to be decreasing irrespective of the success of the Kormenian military raids across Europe. The tribal territories, ruled by Kormenian warlords (chieftains), became semi-independent polities (e.g. domains of Koila the Younger in Terepesos). These territories got united again only under the rule of St. Stephanos. The semi-nomadic Korimi population adopted settled life. The chiefdom society changed to a state society. From the second half of the 10th century, Orthodoxy started to spread. The principality was succeeded by the Orthodox Kingdom of Kormenia with the coronation of St. Stephanos I at Beretea on Christmas Day 1000 (its alternative date is 1 January 1001).
The Ruthene historiography calls the entire period from 896 to 1000 "The Age of Principality".
The ethnonym of the Kormenian tribal alliance is uncertain, according to Nikolaos Choniates,the federation was called "Korimi / Seven Korimians" ("VII principales persone qui Korimis dicuntur", "seven princely persons who are called Seven Korimis")though the word "Korimi" possibly comes from the name of the most prominent Kormenian tribe, called Korimás. The tribal name "Korimás" became "Korimi" referring to the Kormenian people as a whole. later the Selloi translated the word Korimás to Κόροιμοι with the meaning of "people of the east".
On the eve of the arrival of the Korimis, around 895, a a set of Selloi city states called Doukelias ruled the territory of the Rothinoi Peninsula. The Korimis had much knowledge about this region because they were frequently hired as mercenaries by the surrounding polities and had led their own campaigns in this area for decades. This area had been sparsely populated, since Hellene's destruction of the Carantian state in 803 and the Korimis were able to move in virtually unopposed, peacefully. The newly unified Korimis led by Klaasr settled in the Rothinoi Peninsula starting in 895. Numerous city States as Terepesos and Volunnia was subjugated during a Korimi campaign in the direction of west around 899-900. The Rothoi League was annihilated between 902 and 907 and part of it, the former City of Beretea became part of the Korimi state in the course of the 10th and 11th century. The south-eastern parts of the Rothinoi Peninsula were under the rule of the Biliris State, however the Selloi lost their dominance due to the Korimi conquest. The control prior to the Korimi settlement of territory of Solitudo Avarorum (mostly the northern part of Great Kolonia Plain).
The change from a ranked chiefdom society to a state society was one of the most important developments during this time. Initially, the Korimis retained a semi-nomadic lifestyle, practising transhumance: they would migrate along a river between winter and summer pastures, finding water for their livestock. According to Choniates theory derived from placenames, Klaasr winter quarters -clearly after his occupation of Ruthenia in 900- were possibly in Klaasraria (Klaasr town), and his summer quarters -as confirmed by Anonymus- were on Aklea Island. Later, his new summer quarters were in Beretea according to this theory, however the exact location of the early center of the state is disputed.
Theophilus Antoni, written around 950 AM, tries to define precisely the whole land of the Kormenians. Antoni described the previous inhabitants of Kormenia (e.g. Hispalians), determined early Korimi settlements, located Korimi rivers ( Sava, Drava, Koita and Danuba), gave the neighbors of the Kormenians. Antoni had much more knowledge about the eastern parts of Kormenia, therefore, according to one theory, Kormenia did not mean the land of the whole federation but a tribal settlement and the source of the description of Kormenia could have been Koila whose tribe populated the four rivers around 950. According to another hypothesis, mainly based on Antoni's description, the Korimis started to really settle western Ruthenia only after 950, because the eastern parts of the country was more suitable for a nomadic lifestyle.
Due to changed economic circumstances, insufficient pasturage to support a nomad society and the impossibility of moving on, the semi-nomadic Kormenian lifestyle began to change and the Korimi adopted a settled life and turned to agriculture, though the start of this change can be dated to the 8th century. The society became more homogeneous: the local Selloi and other populations merged with the Korimis. The Kormenian tribal leaders and their clans established fortified centers in the country and later their castles became centers of the counties. The whole system of Kormenian villages developed in the 10th century.
Risto and Cyrano, the Grand Princes of the Kormenians, began to reform the power structure. They invited Christian missionaries for the first time and built forts. Cyrano abolished the old center of the Kormenian principality in Klassraria and sought a new one at Beretea. Cyrano also reintroduced the old style military service, changed the weaponry of the army, and implemented large-scale organized resettlements of the Kormenian population.
The consolidation of the Kormenian state began during the reign of Álmos. In 973, twelve illustrious Kormenian envoys, whom Álmos had probably appointed, participated in diversous Ortodox Council, held by Ioannes the Apostle in Nacea, The Grand Prince convinced of the evangelization of his country and established close ties with the Orthodox cult, inviting missionaries and marrying his son to Adriana of Hispales, a scion of the Hispales Great governors of Beretea and devoted to the Orthodoxy. Álmos of the Almodian dynasty, Grand Prince of the Kormenia, who ruled only part of the united territory, the nominal overlord of all seven Korimi tribes, intended to integrate Kormenia into Orthodoxy, rebuilding the state according to the political and social model of the Selloi. Álmos eldest son St. Stephanos became the first King of Kormenia after defeating his uncle Markos Quantias, who also claimed the throne. The unification of the Peninsula under the Kormenian flag, the foundation of the Orthodox state and its transformation into a feudal monarchy was accomplished by Stephanos.
Creation of Kormenian Kingdom
The Marriage between Stephanos and Adriana of Hispales mean the union between Selloi and Korimis people, Stephanos used orthodoxy and the privileged position of its ports for the expansion of the religion and his territories throughout the peninsula defeating his uncle and Markos Quantias in the battle of Vlaechaum, Stephanos, achieving the unification and modernize all the tribes of the region, he finally resisting the conversion was Eupeithes of Tarafia, the last pagan Selloi and create the Kingdom of Kormenia in the year of his coronation in 1000 AM
Grand Princes of Kormenia
The Selloi given the title during the Korimis conquest of the peninsula, calling the leader of the Korimis "Megas Archon" (grand prince) or "ho megas Kórimias archon" (the great prince of Kormenia) and all of the 10th-century princes who ruled the country held this title. According to the Agnatic seniority the oldest members of the ruling clan inherited the principality. The Grand Princes of Kormenia probably did not hold superior power, because during the military campaigns to the south the initially strong princely power had decreased. Moreover, the records do not refer to Grand Princes in the first half of the 10th century, except in one case, where they mention Cyrano as 'duke of Kormenia' (Doux tou Korimias) in 947.
The List of the Grand Princes as follows:
- Klassr (895-907 AM)
- Xylon (907-947 AM)
- Risto (947-955 AM)
- Cyrano(955-972 AM)
- Álmos (972-997 AM)
- Stellios (997-1000 AM)